This Cell Meter� Autophagy Kit employs Autophagy Green� as a specific autophagosome marker to analyze the activity of autophagy. The assay is optimized for direct detection of autophagy in both detached and attached cells. The kit provides all the essential compo
nents for the assay protocol. Cell Meter� Autophagy Kit is suitable for fluorescence microscope, fluorescence microplate reader and flow cytometer. Autophagy Green� has a large Stokes shift with Ex/Em = 447/553 nm. Autophagy is an evolutio
nserved degradation process that targets long-lived proteins, organelles, and other cytoplasmic compo
nents for degradation via the lysosomal pathway. The autophagy pathway is complementary to the action of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway which typically degrades short-lived proteins. Activation of the autophagy pathway is required for multiple cellular roles, including survival during starvation, the clearance of intracellular components, development, and immunity. In the absence of stress, autophagy serves a house-keeping function, removing damaged organelles and cellular compo
nents preventing cytotoxic effects. Decreases and defects in autophagy have been implicated in multiple diseases, for example Huntingtons, Alzheimers, and Parkinsons. In terms of cancer development, autophagy seems to play multiple roles. Decreased or absent ex
pression of certain autophagy proteins, such as Beclin-1 and Bif-1, increases tumor susceptibility in mice while the overex
pression of these proteins can repress cancer cell growth. However, autophagy is critical for the survival of cancer cells within the nutrient poor and hypoxic core of solid tumors.